Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
The landscape of oil exploration and production is fundamentally changing. The vast majority of reserve replacements today come from "unconventional" resources, which require more complex mechanisms during their recovery process or have only recently, due to technology advancements, been made possible. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a process in which otherwise immobile residual oil in a reservoir is stimulated physically, thermally, or chemically to mobilize and is then produced. Two of the predominant agents for the mobilization of oil are CO2 or heat, in the form of steam. Both processes have been used for decades in a large variety of applications and are well established, proven, and accepted methodologies for oil recovery.
In North America alone, in-situ crude bitumen and CO2 EOR light oil production put together is estimated to increase to between 4.2-7.1 million barrels of oil per day by 2030, compared to a total crude oil production in North America of "only" 7.5 million barrels per day today. Excluded from these estimates are data for recoverable oil volumes from Residual Oil Zones (ROZ), a CO2-based production method that only recently found its way into the headlines, but promises to bringing a paradigm shift to reserve assessments around the world...
The largest constraints in the economic and responsible expansion of these petroleum resources come from the limited availability of CO2 for CO2 EOR and the environmental impact of crude bitumen production. CES technology based solutions are targeted to bridge those constraints by providing on-site CO2, steam, power, and water supply while intelligently and efficiently expanding our planet's accessible natural resource base and eliminating air emission.
Please explore in the following tabs how we are able to do that.
CES CO2 EOR Solutions
With natural sources of CO2 no longer meeting
the demand, anthropogenic sources become
more and more important in supplying the
required volumes of CO2 to the enhanced oil
recovery market. Even full technically feasible
exploitation of the current emissions forecast
from power facilities in the United States could
not satisfy the full economic potential of EOR amenable reservoirs.
CES breaks the limitations imposed by CO2 infrastructure and natural sources by offering CO2 production facilities that integrate power, steam, and water generation for your targeted CO2 flood candidate. CES facilities greatly simplify the process of generating clean, compressed and injection-quality CO2. They supply EOR fields with self-sustainable power and water supply and enable risk hedging strategies for long-term field exploitation horizons.
CES facilities allow you to:
CES CO2 Recycle Facilities
CES systems offer a tremendous flexibility and
versatility in fuel qualities. Even the recycle CO2
stream from your existing CO2 flood may provide
the appropriate fuel to operate CES solutions.
CO2 recycle streams composed of primarily CO2 and some methane, ethane, and NGLs provide an excellent fuel to produce enough power to supply to your entire operation, including CO2 compression. Combusting the recycle gas in CES gas generators or re-heaters generates additional volumes of CO2 from the conversion of associated hydrocarbons and processes the recycled CO2 component for re-injection.
Providing an economically attractive alternative to the broadly employed "blood, guts, and feathers" approach of directly re-injecting the recycle CO2 gas offers a multitude of benefits to the CO2 EOR flooding operation. When converting the recycle gas into a fuel gas you address a multitude of economic enhancements to your existing flood operation:
Thermal Recovery -
In-Situ Recovery of Crude Bitumen
Heavy crude bitumen can be produced in surface mining operations or in in-situ thermal recovery, a process where the crude bitumen that is at near-solid state, is stimulated to flow by thermal treatment. Steam or steam/CO2 mixtures are injected into the reservoir. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most common method of steam injection in crude bitumen recovery and is both a very energy and water intensive process.
CES technology brings a game-changing Perspective to these recovery methods. The G2S2 process (Gas Generator and Steam Separator) introduces a smart direct steam generation process to in-situ recovery methods. Combining efficient, stack-less, and minimum emission steam generation with an integrated produced water treatment process in one, the G2S2 solution revolutionizes the surface operation of a conventional SAGD process.
Direct steam generation (the process of combining heat and steam generation inside the same vessel) utilizing practically untreated water and fuel from potentially low-value fuel sources allows for systemic improvements to the environmental impact and energy efficiency of in-situ recovery. The great reduction in equipment and geometric footprint of the steam generation equipment provides higher flexibility in in-field modular deployment around a centralized facility to adapt to field expansions and phased exploitation projects.
Thermal Recovery -
CSS and Steam Flooding
The CES direct steam generation method (the Process of combining heat and steam generation inside the same vessel) brings new perspectives to more conventional steam stimulation methods, such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam flooding.
Similar to its application in the SAGD in-situ recovery, the CES process allows for fundamental and systemically different approaches to steam generation in thermal recovery processes. The G2S2 (gas generator and steam separator) process combines a water treatment component with efficient, stack-less, and near-zero emissions steam and CO2 generation. Unlike conventional boiler systems, CES processes are not limited to the pressure at which the resulting steam can efficiently be generated at the desired injection qualities, allowing you to target new frontiers of depths for heavy oil recovery in reservoirs that to-date were inaccessible for thermal treatment.
The CES process inherently provides a CO2/steam combination that may or may not be beneficial to your target reservoir. With some of our partners we are specifically targeting those reservoirs that promise a positive response from the combination of the CO2 content in steam in reservoirs that are between conventional thermal recovery and typical miscible CO2 EOR reservoir depths.
CES further provides process solutions that may separate the drive gas for a separated delivery of steam and CO2. This solution targets thermal recovery reservoirs in close proximity to CO2 EOR candidate floods. Alternatively, these solutions may provide steam to industrial steam hosts that have nearby CO2 EOR opportunities.